A specific learning disorder is a developmental disorder where the key skills that may be impacted include reading of single words, reading comprehension, writing, spelling, maths calculation and math problem-solving. Reading problems can include difficulties with reading accuracy, reading rate or fluency, and reading comprehension. ‘Dyslexia’ refers to learning difficulties related to word recognition, decoding or spelling.
Problems with written expression can include difficulties with spelling, grammar, and punctuation and with clarity or organization of written expression. ‘Dysgraphia’ is a term used to describe difficulties with handwriting.
Problems with Maths can include difficulties with number sense, memorizing math facts, math calculations or math reasoning. ‘Dyscalculia’ is a term used to describe difficulties in learning math facts and performing math calculations.
The development of fluent language skills is rooted in complex cognitive processes that include attention, auditory and visual perception and processing, memory, and executive function. Students who have difficulty in any of these areas may also have difficulty in acquiring the facility with language that school requires. So language-based learning disability (LBLD) refers to a spectrum of difficulties related to the understanding and use of spoken and written language. LBLD is a common cause of students’ academic struggles because weak language skills impede comprehension and communication, which are the basis for the most school activity. It can manifest as a wide verity of language difficulties with different levels of severity. One may have difficulty in sounding out words for reading or spelling, but no difficulty with oral expression or listening comprehension. Another may struggle with all the three.
Other linguistic deficits include delays in learning to speak, no voice modulations, problems in naming objects, use of vague imprecise language, reduce vocabulary, slow- halting speech, poor grammar usage, mispronunciation, word confusions, avoidance behaviors, in sensation to rhymes, little interest in books, inappropriate response to questions, no understanding of instructions, poor language understanding, and difficulty in breaking words and blending individual sounds.