FACTORS AFFECTING ARTICULATION AND PHONOLOGICAL DISORDER
Certain casual factors that show the presence of Articulation/phonological disorder. They are related to impairments and/or interference with the structural and functions of speech and hearing mechanism.
Speech clinician’s request to judge about the structure and/function of the lips, teeth, tongue, and palate.
These oral structures vary among the individuals.
The most important articulator for speech sound and it’s movement include elevation, grooving and protrusion.
The tongue is relatively short during birth, growing longer and thinner at the tip with the age.
Problems associated are:-
Restricted lingual frenulum.
Indented tongue-tie on protrusion.
Cannot contact the alveolar arch with the tongue tip.
Cannot produce alveolar and dental consonants.
The major sounds affected are the laterals, retroflex, palatal and the interdentals.
Too large tongue
Too small tongue.
4) Tongue thrust:-
Inappropriate or excessive lingual contacts against or between the teeth at rest or during vegetative or communicative functions.
Occlusion: – refers to the alignment of the teeth when the jaws are closed.
Malocclusion:-irregular dental and jaw alignment.
6) Hard and soft palate
Soft palate (velum):- important for normal resonance and production of the pressure consonants.
The velum sounds are most affected.
Short velum can lead to Misarticulation of pressure consonants such as fricatives, affricates, stops.
7) Nasal emission:-
Hyper nasality of vowels, diphthongs and vocalic consonants.
8) Facial patterns
They are determined by analyzing the relationship of mandible and maxilla to the cranial base to each other.
There are three types of facial patterns associated with oro facial variations.
Class one: – refers to good balance of skeletal and soft tissue components.
Class two:-it shows mid face protrusion.
Class three: – it is characterized by procumbency of lower face.