What is ADHD? Symptoms, causes and management

ADHD (Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) is a chronic condition beginning in early childhood and can persist throughout lifetime.  It is characterized by problems in paying attention, excessive activity or difficulty in controlling behaviour. Children with ADHD may find it more difficult than others to focus and to complete their school work. Some of the core features of ADHD are:-  Impulsivity, hyperactivity, Inattention.



  • Difficulty to organise tasks and activities.
  • Unable to focus on tasks and cannot sustain attention in activities
  • Forgetful during daily activities.
  • Don’t listen and don’t respond when name being called out.
  • Cannot wait for their turn (during play or other activities)
  • Easily bored
  • Seeks constant activities
  • Easily distracted by extraneous stimuli.
  • Avoid or dislike tasks which require sustained mental effort.
  • Blurts out answers(Impulsivity)
  • Cannot play quietly or engage in leisurely activities.



The exact cause of ADHD isn’t completely understood, although a combination of factors are responsible like-

  • ADHD tends to run in families and in most cases, it’s through the genes you inherit from your parents. This is one of the most significant factor in developing this condition.
  • Researchers have found some difference in their brain structure but exact cause is still unknown.
  • Other causes are- being born pre maturely
  • Having low birth weight.
  • Habit of drinking alcohol, smoking during pregnancy.



  • Variety of behaviour modification approaches are there including- working memory training, parent management training and class room management can improve the behaviour of child.
  • Behavioural therapy is effective treatment for ADHD that can improve a child’s behaviour of self-control and self-esteem. It is very effective to give Behavioural therapy before prescribing medicine.
  • Behavioural therapy given by parents, with the support of health care providers, teachers to better control their own behaviours, leading to improved functioning at school and home.


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