Eating Disorders:

Common eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorders


People with anorexia nervosa avoid food, severely restrict food, or eat very small quantities of only certain foods. Even when they are dangerously underweight, they may see themselves as overweight. They may also weigh themselves repeatedly. There are two subtypes of anorexia nervosa: a restrictive subtype and binge-purge subtype.

Symptoms include:

◗ Extremely restricted eating and/or intensive and excessive exercise

◗ Extreme thinness (emaciation)

◗ A relentless pursuit of thinness and unwillingness to maintain a normal or healthy weight

◗ Intense fear of gaining weight

◗ Distorted body image, a self-esteem that is heavily influenced by perceptions of body weight and    shape, or a denial of the seriousness of low body weight


People with bulimia nervosa have recurrent episodes of eating unusually large amounts of food and feeling a lack of control over these episodes. This binge-eating is followed by behaviors that compensate for the overeating, such as forced vomiting, excessive use of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, excessive exercise, or a combination of these behaviors. Unlike those with anorexia nervosa, people with bulimia nervosa may maintain a normal weight or be overweight.

Symptoms include:

◗ Chronically inflamed and sore throat

◗ Swollen salivary glands in the neck and jaw area

◗ Worn tooth enamel and increasingly sensitive and decaying teeth (a result of exposure to stomach acid)

◗ Acid reflux disorder and other gastrointestinal problems

◗ Intestinal distress and irritation from laxative abuse

◗ Severe dehydration from purging

◗ Electrolyte imbalance (too low or too high levels of sodium, calcium, potassium and other minerals), which can lead to stroke or heart attack

Binge-eating disorder

People with binge-eating disorder lose control over their eating. Unlike bulimia nervosa, periods of binge-eating are not followed by purging, excessive exercise, or fasting. As a result, people with binge eating disorder are often overweight or obese.

Symptoms include:

◗ Eating unusually large amounts of food in a specific amount of time, such as a 2-hour period

◗ Eating fast during binge episodes

◗ Eating even when full or not hungry

◗ Eating until uncomfortably full

◗ Eating alone or in secret to avoid embarrassment

◗ Feeling distressed, ashamed, or guilty about eating

◗ Frequently dieting, possibly without weight loss


1.cognitive behavioural therapy

2.DIaelectical behavioural therapy

3.Radically open dialectical and behavioural therapy

4.Family based therapy


Many sleep disorders are brain disorders that cause interruptions in sleep patterns. They prevent people from getting enough sleep. Most people require 7 to 10 hours of sleep per day. The brain regulates sleep and is the only organ known to require or benefit from sleep. Not getting enough sleep can affect quality of life. Untreated sleep disorders can also cause serious safety problems and medical issues.

Most sleep problems fall into one of these categories:

  • Circadian rhythm disturbances: Sleep/wake patterns that do not follow a normal 24-hour rhythm
  • Hypersomnia: Excessive sleepiness
  • Insomnia: Difficulty getting to and staying asleep
  • Narcolepsy: Usually includes sudden onset of sleep, sudden loss of muscle tone, and hallucinations when falling asleep or waking up
  • Sleep apnea: Stopping breathing while sleeping
  • Restless legs syndrome: Feelings of restlessness and abnormal sensations in the legs that typically occur in the evening when lying down and are improved by movement
  • REM sleep behavior disorder: Involves acting out dreams during sleep, which can cause self-injury or injury to the bed partner
  • Parasomnias


  • Inability to fall asleep at night
  • Inability to stay asleep at night
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness
  • Loud snoring or gasping sounds during sleep
  • Sleep attacks, or unintended episodes of falling asleep
  • Loss of muscle control or inability to move
  • Fatigue


Occupational therapy practitioner working with families of children with autism spectrum disorder or another developmental disorders explore the impact of sleep deprivation on the family unit and childs and caregivers ability to function effectively during the day. They aid families to systematically trial changes in bedtime routine habit and patterns. Cognitive behavioral therapy intervention to avoid sensory seeking behaviours (eg. A picture poster depicting bed time routines,loose/tight pajamas, light weight or weighted blanket) are used. Calming activities and routine that do not burden the family and can be consistently carried out may facilitate sleep.

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