Postural ocular control

Postural ocular control involves activating and coordinating muscles in response to the position of the body relative to gravity and sustaining functional positions during transition and while moving. Postural responses are required for any action needed during physical engagement. Postural control emerges as the individual develops activation and co-activation of muscle groups that support movement. Postural control is dependent not only on adequate muscle tone, co-activation of muscles and ability to activate muscle synergies but also on adequate ability to integrate sensory information from the vestibular, proprioceptive, visual and tactile system. These systems contribute to our ability to maintain upright and antigravity posture as well as to move efficiently through the environment. For example, antigravity postures such as prone extension and supine flexion develop to support the infant’s ability to raise his/her head against gravity and initiate movements. These provide the basis for more complex postural mechanisms that allow the child to move in and out of midline position and maintain balance and equilibrium are components of postural control that are modulated by the vestibular, proprioceptive and visual systems. Daily activities require coordinating the position of the body relative to gravity by organizing not only upright postures but also the coordination of the two sides of the body. These repetitive daily actions that are part of postural ocular control and bilateral integration and sequencing are reliant on accurate sensory information to be executed well

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